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It was roughly contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramids.
It preceded the civilization of Mesoamerica by two millennia.
In the last two thousand years, there may have been contact by Polynesians who sailed to and from the continent across the South Pacific Ocean.
With the revolution for independence from the Spanish crown achieved during the 19th century, South America underwent yet more social and political changes.
These have included nation building projects, absorbing waves of immigration from Europe in the late 19th and 20th centuries, dealing with increased international trade, colonization of hinterlands, and wars about territory ownership and power balance.
It is noteworthy for having absolutely no signs of warfare.
It was contemporary with urbanism's rise in Mesopotamia.
The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes, chilies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the Amazon Basin.